A video game dispute escalated into a fatal police confrontation that left an unintended target in Kansas dead.
History has long served as a backdrop in the Assassin’s Creed video games, whose story lines center on pivotal times in history — from the Third Crusade to Imperial China and beyond. But when players of this Ubisoft series rush from mission to mission, as agents of events both great and small, their purpose is rarely to take the time to appreciate history itself. Duty always calls.
Following last year’s release of Assassin’s Creed Origins, set in Ptolemaic Egypt, the team behind it decided that allowing players to learn more about life in ancient Egypt might make for a pretty cool teaching aid. So they traded in the quests and violence for antiquities and history lessons, and created a mode with a series of Discovery Tours. By putting history front and center, the game may give teachers a new way to connect with some students.
Edyeli Marku, a middle-school teacher at Intermediate School 230 in Jackson Heights, Queens, said there could be “tremendous value in it,” for both students and educators — particularly for students who might test as primarily visual, auditory or kinesthetic learners. For those students, she added, “exposing them to a different learning vehicle is always beneficial.”
Ms. Marku said she understands the importance of games to her students and has even used Oregon Trail as a teaching tool.
“They go on the phone like it’s nothing,” she said. “They go on an iPad, and they can spend hours in front of it.”
Maxim Durand, who has been the lead researcher and history consultant for the Assassin’s Creed franchise since 2010, and Jean Guesdon, the creative director on Origins, said they had often heard from educators who saw the potential of using the games. Some had even used small portions in their lessons. But so much of Assassin’s Creed, given its violence and fictional narrative, is problematic in a school setting.
Even Ms. Marku said the violent content could hamper the franchise’s acceptance for education purposes, especially for parents reacting to the name of the series or those familiar with its subject matter.
In this version of the game, though, players guide their chosen avatar. It can be the sheriff-like character Bayek, the original protagonist of Assassin’s Creed Origins, or one of 25 possible others including Bayek’s wife, Aya; their son, Khemu; Cleopatra; Julius Caesar; Roman legionnaires; and even ordinary Egyptian, Greek and Roman adults and children.
A voice-over details the objects on view, including artifacts like pottery, scrolls, farm tools and baking ovens. The 75 available tours cover daily life, monuments, agriculture, the lives of Greek and Roman settlers, and other topics. At some locations, non-playable characters are seen performing tasks like baking bread, tilling a field or inscribing scrolls. Here players can elect to have their chosen avatar perform the activity. Maybe Cleopatra and Caesar never knelt before a bread oven to remove a hot loaf from the coals, but here players can have that experience.
The Library of Alexandria is another stop. In recreating it, Mr. Durand said, his team looked to the remnants of the Library of Celsus, which is still standing amid the ancient ruins in Ephesus, Turkey.
Of course, a lot of history’s secrets are lost to time. That’s where a Behind the Scenes feature comes in. The makers use it to explain how and why they chose to represent certain objects. Mr. Durand said he hoped this would also prompt students to think critically about how games are created and the way stories are told.
Marc-André Éthier, a professor at the University of Montreal who studies materials that are being used to teach high school history, noticed that traditional tools like textbooks were being used less. When he heard about the Discovery Tour, he said, “I was intrigued, and I prepared a study to test if Discovery Tour could teach someone as much as a lecture.”
Mr. Éthier said he approached Ubisoft with an idea for what eventually became a study of some 330 students, 12 to 16 years old, in nine schools in Montreal. Students were divided into groups of 40. First, all the students were given a test. Then half of each group took the Library of Alexandria tour, and the other had a lesson with a teacher. Afterward, they took a second quiz. Mr. Éthier said the students working with a teacher did better on the test than the ones who had only taken the tour. Though the test scores of the students who took the tour still showed improvement, of 22 percent to 44 percent.
To make the games accessible to broader range of schools, which typically have computers or tablets rather than game consoles, Ubisoft released a standalone version of the Discovery Tour for computers, even those with aging hardware.
Evelyne Ferron, who specializes in Egyptian history and worked on the project, said she wanted players to “realize the colors of Egypt.” Today the Sphinx, the pyramids and temples are bleached white, but they were once vividly colored. Players can see the gold and blue of the sphinx, and the rich browns, blues and greens of the hieroglyphics and murals on the temple walls.
Still, she said, full realism is not always possible and is sometimes less important when entertainment is the goal. “When you create a game,” Ms. Ferron said, “you need to create immersion.” A historian taking a strict view of history would not sacrifice realism, she said. “Sometimes you have to trick history.”
In the wake of the Parkland school shooting, President Trump has pointed to a common explanation for the violence: video games. But two decades after the Columbine shooting popularized this explanation for violent crime, research has rejected the hypothesis.
Q. My new Mac laptop has a headphone jack and one USB-C port for everything else. What’s the best way to connect an H.D.M.I. cable or my camera’s Secure Digital memory card without having to haul around a bunch of adapters when I travel?
A. As cloud-based file storage and wireless connections have become common, Apple’s MacBook family (and some Windows-based ultrabooks) have been shedding ports and slots, all to make a more lightweight laptop. Apple and other vendors sell individual USB-C adapters (also called dongles) to convert the port for use with standard USB connectors, H.D.M.I. video cables, Secure Digital card readers and other gear.
Individual adapters can cost as little as $10, and you have to buy them only for ports you actually need. If you have more than two jacks to convert, investing a bit more money in a USB-C dock or hub simplifies things. One way to shop for a multiport dock is to make a list of all the connections you need to use with the laptop — like multiple standard USB ports, H.D.M.I. or V.G.A. cables, and additional USB-C hardware — and then look for a model that has places to plug in everything.
Credit The New York Times
If you need a portable dock that has both an H.D.M.I. port and an SD card reader, the OWC USB-C Travel Dock is one option; it sells for $50 and is about the size of a thick beverage coaster. The $200 Henge Stone dock is bigger and more expensive, but offers more ports. Other companies offer similar multiport docks, so shop around and compare reviews.
Wirecutter, a product-recommendation site owned by The New York Times, has a guide to picking the best USB-C hub based on specific connection needs. The site also has suggestions for Thunderbolt docks for MacBook Pro laptops and other models that use the Thunderbolt 3 technology with USB-C connectors.
Living in an old church means many things. Today it means my house is a Pokémon Go gym. This should be fascinating.
Get off the firing line, Pikachu! That’s a safety violation! pic.twitter.com/WilmXFBHlf
And while most pro gamers have to settle for modest sponsorships with companies that make things like game controllers and headphones, Mr. Haag last year also attracted Red Bull, the energy drink, which has traditionally built its marketing around skateboarders, motocross riders and other extreme-sports athletes. Mr. Haag is one of six people on its roster of e-sports players, and it is showering them with the same attention and training it has lavished on athletes who compete in the real world.
For the trip to Los Angeles, Red Bull paid for Mr. Haag and his teammates to live in Venice Beach. During the day, the company shuttled them to its headquarters in Santa Monica for workouts and other training. At night, they lingered in a high-tech studio and played video games into the wee hours.
Mr. Haag is the face of the growing business of video games as a spectator sport. Thanks to live tournaments and online video-streaming sites like Twitch, which Amazon bought for $1 billion in August, video games have become something to watch, not just play.
But fans need someone to root for, and that is where Mr. Haag comes in. He has the requisite marks of a champion, like tournament victories and a compelling back story. And he certainly looks like a gamer: On the recent morning in Venice, his pancake-making attire consisted of a T-shirt, knee-length shorts and a backward baseball cap.
Most important, though, is his compulsion to share his life — on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and YouTube. He is, more or less, the producer, director and star of his own reality show.
Mr. Haag’s YouTube channel is in the top 1 percent of the 220,000 channels tracked by the analytics tool OpenSlate. Beyond YouTube, Mr. Haag has become the No. 1 player on MLG.TV, the site where people watch him play live.
An Online Video Star
What makes him so watchable? A recent survey performed by Jeetendr Sehdev, a marketer who focuses on celebrity branding, said that teenagers found YouTube stars easier to relate to and more candid than famous people from places like Hollywood.
Mr. Haag’s fans are right in line with this thinking. They seem to regard him as an exceptionally interesting friend.
For example, Kasey Young, 21, of Cleveland has learned through social media and streaming that Mr. Haag drives a BMW, often eats at Chipotle and likes to say “wallbong,” a nonsense term he made up with friends. Mr. Young said he now finds himself saying “wallbong” at work at random times.
“If he knew me in real life, I feel like we would be really good friends,” Mr. Young said.
Mr. Haag’s videos, raw and unproduced, add to this feeling of intimacy. In addition to game video, his YouTube channel has regular updates in which he appears revealing and honest, posting, for example, travel diaries in which he sits on a hotel bed and tells fans about his day. He also put up an old home video in which his awkward younger self makes an alien face for the camera and then pulls up his T-shirt to show off his bony chest.
Fans get to see interpersonal drama, like an episode last year when one of his OpTic comrades quit the team and accused Mr. Haag of blaming him for a tough tournament loss. And although he has a mostly male audience and has made his reputation as a video game killer, he is not afraid to be vulnerable.
Fans know that Mr. Haag’s mother suffered from seizures for most of his life. When she died two years ago, he sat on a couch at home and recorded a YouTube video in which he thanked followers for their heartfelt messages on Twitter. He appeared distraught and shaken but also genuinely thankful.
Both his fans and his detractors agree that this connection with his public is what sets Mr. Haag apart and makes him “a people’s champion,” as Sundance DiGiovanni, chief executive of Major League Gaming, a gaming league, put it.
“If you’re talking about YouTube and fan outreach, he’s the No. 1 player by far,” said Mike Rufail, the owner of Team EnVyUs, OpTic’s chief rival. “But in terms of raw talent, he’s a top 15 player — I wouldn’t put him in that top three or four guys.”
Mr. Haag doesn’t care what his opponents think. He makes several times his father’s salary playing video games, and earlier this year bought a $3,000 watch. The only thing he wants is to hold onto his job.
“I think about my future probably at least 10 times a day,” he said. “I think about what if this all goes away one day? What if for some reason people just aren’t in your live stream tomorrow? What if people aren’t clicking on your YouTube videos tomorrow? What if your team doesn’t work out and you’re not performing that well and you have to quit competitively? What happens when you can’t compete anymore and you want to retire because you’re going insane?”
Alone With the Xbox
As Mr. Haag was growing up in the Chicago area, his parents did not need to worry about where he was on the weekends: He was usually upstairs playing video games. Parties made him anxious. And instead of marijuana or alcohol, the sugary rush of an energy drink was his drug of choice and still is.
Parlaying Video-Game Prowess Into Stardom
CreditMonica Almeida/The New York Times
“He was more of a loner,” said his father, Jeff Haag, 50, a carpenter. “He gamed a lot.”
Up in his bedroom, clutching an Xbox controller and surrounded by posters of the Chicago Bulls and Muhammad Ali, Mr. Haag had a place where he belonged. To friends and rivals he met through his Xbox, he was not a wallflower but a fierce competitor who could be a domineering teammate.
“Countless times I would put my head in the door and be like, ‘Shut the hell up,’ ” his father said. “He’s like yelling at people when they weren’t doing exactly what they were supposed to be doing.”
Mr. Haag’s competitive career began seven years ago, when he was 15, with online tournaments organized through his Xbox, as well as small local contests held in banquet halls. Five years ago, his uncle took him to a tournament in Anaheim.
The uncle, Greg Haag, remembered that the contest hall was hot and reeked of sweat and warm semiconductors, and that Mr. Haag was disappointed with his fourth-place finish.
But the right people had already taken notice. Around the same time, Hector Rodriguez, a onetime insurance analyst who controlled a pickup team, OpTic Gaming, was trying to build it into a real business. He enticed Mr. Haag to join OpTic by offering to pay for travel and lodging at tournaments.
Two years later, Mr. Haag went back to California for the Call of Duty championships, only this time with Mr. Rodriguez instead of his uncle. The $1 million purse made it one of the world’s most prominent gaming events.
Mr. Haag led OpTic to a first-place finish and the $400,000 top prize. This brought him a wave of publicity and a $100,000 check.
Today, Mr. Rodriguez acts as Mr. Haag’s agent, mentor and chief scheduler. Unlike most agents, he doesn’t take a cut; Mr. Haag keeps all of his money from sponsors and contests. But Mr. Rodriguez owns the OpTic brand and controls the merchandise sales along with OpTic’s live stream and YouTube videos. In essence, this means he makes money from video ads and selling T-shirts.
OpTic Gaming is now a big enough business that Mr. Rodriguez rents a house in Hoffman Estates, outside Chicago, where Mr. Haag and his teammates practice Call of Duty all day. Mr. Rodriguez lives a few miles away so he can make sure everyone is working hard — that they are busy playing video games.
Mr. Haag and his teammates have become famous, which has made the house a target for pranks. Late last year, someone called 911 and claimed that armed intruders were breaking in, apparently hoping that the police would show up with guns drawn.
It worked: Local police appeared with AR-15 rifles. But instead of bad guys, they found Mr. Haag and his roommates playing video games near a stack of pizzas. The pizzas had been ordered earlier in the evening, and were also a prank. Mr. Haag said he and his roommates paid for them because they felt bad for the delivery man.
More on the latest Call of Duty release. Complete Coverage of Video Games »
Sharing Every Detail
The day after the pancake lessons, Mr. Haag was in Red Bull’s game studio wearing a contraption like a swimming cap that was full of wires and attached to a computer. The idea was to see how his brain functioned under the stress of video game combat. This would help Red Bull’s trainers and sports therapists design exercises to help him stay calm and shoot better.
To perform the test, a Red Bull “sports technologist” had Mr. Haag fire up Call of Duty and start shooting. Whether or not this will help his performance, it paid instant dividends for his image. The first thing Mr. Haag did after the test was post a photo of himself in the cap of wires to Twitter, Facebook and Instagram.
Mr. Haag said, “Social media is the most important part of what I do.” Even though Mr. Haag calls himself a professional video game player, he is really an online video star. The money he wins in contests is tiny compared with the money he makes from his live stream and YouTube videos.
His command over his audience is great enough that Major League Gaming recently enticed him to leave Twitch and stream exclusively with its site. He is on track to make around $700,000 from streaming and his YouTube channel this year. Throw in his other sponsorships and contest winnings, and he is well on his way to a million-dollar year.
But Mr. Haag is paid per viewer, so he has to keep producing.
One night at Red Bull’s studios, he played Call of Duty over the Internet for his fans. When Mr. Haag competes, he sits upright in his chair and screams back and forth with his teammates in a way that is reminiscent of a Wall Street trading desk. But this night was more casual: He was jumping from game to game and playing with whoever was online right then.
He had filled the stream with hip-hop so his viewers could hear beats and rhyming lyrics over the din of digital gunfire and grenades. His face was lit up by a pair of screens, one with Call of Duty and another with a rolling list of fan questions like “How was the Brain Testing?” and “Nadeshot can you say ‘What’s up Blake?’ ”
He talked for the entire five or so hours that he played — about the game, about hip-hop, about how his desire for an In-N-Out burger was fighting with his newfound resolve to eat healthily. At times he sang rap lyrics.
It looked like a cross between social media and talk radio, if talk radio had a visual component where a bunch of digital characters shoot one another. And as a form of entertainment, it seemed perfectly suited to a world where people jump around browser windows, watching a video in one, checking Facebook in another.
The Internet, with its infinite space and insatiable demand, has turned Mr. Haag’s pastime into a drudging obligation. But it is better than McDonald’s, which is why he spends so much time worrying that his game career will end and that he will have to figure something else out.
Mr. Haag may be only one year above the legal drinking age, but his fan base is largely teenagers. Just as he and other gamers have upset the media landscape by teaching children to watch video games like TV, they live with the near-constant threat that their audience will abandon them for something or someone else.
On another evening, Mr. Haag, bags under his eyes, wanted to take a night off and go back to the house in Venice. He asked his teammates if they wanted to go with him. They declined.
Instead of letting his teammates siphon off fans who could be watching him, Mr. Haag changed his plan and stayed for yet another marathon session of streaming.
“I would love to go home and hang out, but you gotta do what you gotta do,” he said. “Can’t complain too much, playing video games for a living.”
When not competing in front of thousands of people, Mr. Dager works from his childhood bedroom in Fort Wayne, Ind.
At the small desk in the corner sit the tools of his trade: a computer with two displays, a webcam, a keyboard and a mouse. The bespectacled Mr. Dager is tall and lean, looking about as he did when he was the place-kicker for his high school football team. A poster of him in his football uniform hangs on a wall.
He is confident and analytical and, at 22, is about the median in age among his teammates. There are not many professional gamers in their 30s.
Last Wednesday, as on most days, Mr. Dager’s workday started around 1 p.m. Teammates from Northern California, Vancouver and Sweden joined him online, ready to sharpen their skills at Dota 2 for the next four hours or more.
“At night, I dream about Dota,” he said. “Sometimes I dream I’m a Dota hero.”
The game — its name is an acronym for Defense of the Ancients — is played on a square map with passages for players between enemy bases. Players pick game avatars from a cast of more than 100 heroes, each with a different set of strengths and weaknesses. To win the game, players must work as a team to destroy an enemy structure called an Ancient, while dodging various defenses, marauding monsters called creeps and other players.
Using a microphone connected to his computer, Mr. Dager spoke to teammates in a quiet, steady voice, using an argot that would be incomprehensible to nongamers. Evil Geniuses won its first two scrimmages of the day. During a third match, though, one of his teammates seemed to lose focus and the other team began building up a large lead. Mr. Dager lost patience.
“I can’t play Dota this way,” he said to the player. “What you’re doing makes no sense. Just follow your teammates.”
Normally, when he finishes practicing, Mr. Dager streams hours of informal matches with other players on Twitch, sometimes to as many as 9,000 viewers. He spent less time on Twitch in recent days to rest up ahead of a trip to China this week for a tournament, one of about 10 he will attend around the world this year.
In Mr. Dager’s view, the physical barriers to becoming an e-sports athlete are far lower than for conventional sports. He lists fingers and a brain as the primary tools people need to get started. What most people lack, he said, is a singular focus on games, a willingness to clear away all other distractions.
His obsession with video games was a sore point with Mr. Dager’s parents during his teenage years, as it was for the parents of many top gamers.
“I, and many players like me, sacrificed everything,” said Mr. Dager, who is almost a senior in college but is not attending school now. “We gave up on sports and friends and school just so we can play more.”
Mr. Dager’s income was meager last year, amounting to less than $20,000. But he estimates his income so far this year at more than $200,000.
He recently looked at a condominium to buy in Fort Wayne. His father, Joe Dager, said he was proud of his son’s success but uncertain about the longevity of his son’s career.
“There’s hardly a week that goes by when we don’t reiterate the fact that that’s all fine and good, but at some point you do have to make provisions to finish school,” his father said. “We say that, but I don’t know if Bill Gates’s parents are still saying that to him.”
Hopes for a Growth Cycle
Are Video Games a Sport?
For the companies with a stake in the video game industry, the hope is that the huge audiences will attract more money from major marketers, which will in turn help elevate the production values of events.
Some of that is already happening. T-Mobile USA, the wireless carrier, sponsored Mr. Dager’s team at the Seattle tournament. Coca-Cola live-streamed a League of Legends tournament to theaters in Europe and features the likenesses of game characters on soda bottles in South Korea.
“Gaming isn’t the kind of platform it was when we were kids,” said Matt Wolf, 45, a veteran of the games business who now leads Coca-Cola’s efforts to explore investments in gaming. “It’s a major mass media platform that now has multiple forms of consumption.”
The draw for marketers is the audience: mostly employed men, 18 to 35 years old, a group that has become harder to reach with conventional TV advertisements. Major video game competitions and online streaming sites offer companies new ways to find them.
The idea among game companies is that the marketing dollars from outside companies offer a virtuous cycle. More marketing money leads to better production values, which in theory will lead to increased interest in gaming.
And the more people who become interested in gaming, the more money there will be to spend on the games.
“Now, because games are run as continuous services where people can spend money as they play along, the game companies have bigger incentives to engage and entertain people continuously,” said Peter Warman, chief executive of Newzoo, a research firm that has studied e-sports.
Still, for the cycle to continue, the industry will most likely need to overcome some long-held opinions on games and gamers — in particular, that the skills involved are inferior to conventional forms of athletic excellence. When ESPN2, the cable sports channel, ran a show about the Dota 2 tournament in July, Twitter was flooded with derogatory comments about e-sports being shown as a sport.
Mr. Lampkin of ESL said he wasn’t worried about such attitudes. The argument over whether professional gaming is a sport in the traditional sense, he said, is beside the point now.
“If you don’t want to call it athletics or sports, that doesn’t mean anything to me,” he said. “That doesn’t change the reality of the massive growth we’re seeing.”